Int J Performability Eng ›› 2022, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (9): 654-659.doi: 10.23940/ijpe.22.09.p6.654659

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Comparison of Health Index and Degree of Polymerization based on 2-Furfuraldehyde Compound for Transformer Condition Estimation

M. S. Yahayaa,*, N. Azisb, H. Zainuddinc, M. F. Basara, and M. H. Haruna   

  1. aFaculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Melaka, Malaysia;
    bAdvanced Lightning and Power Energy Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, 43400, Selangor, Malaysia;
    cFaculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Melaka, Malaysia
  • Submitted on ; Revised on ; Accepted on
  • Contact: *E-mail address:
  • About author:M. S. Yahaya is a Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Malaysia. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical Power Engineering from Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia. He also received his Master of Science in Power Distribution Engineering in 2009 from Newcastle University, UK and bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering in 2001 from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia. He had 5 years industrial working experience as Application Engineer and Technical Service Engineer. His research interests are predictive modeling, condition monitoring, condition assessment and asset management.
    N. Azis received B. Eng degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (2007) from Universiti Putra Malaysia and Ph.D. degree in Electrical Power Engineering (2012) from The University of Manchester in UK. Currently he is Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. His research interests are in-service ageing of transformer insulation, condition monitoring, asset management and alternative insulation materials for transformers.
    H. Zainuddin received the B. Eng degree in Electrical Engineering from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 2003 and Ph.D. degree in High Voltage Engineering (2013) from University of Southampton in UK. Currently, he is a Associate Professor and Dean in the Department Faculty of Engineering, University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). His research interests include high voltage engineering, condition monitoring and finite element modeling.
    M. F. Basar attained his Ph.D. in the field of Renewable Energy from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi in 2017. A professional engineer registered with the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) since 2013. His primary research interests are in the fields of renewable energy and electrical engineering. Currently, he is the Deputy Dean of Research at the Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Technology, UTeM.
    M. H. Harun is received the MSc. degree in electrical engineering from Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Malaysia in 2013. Currently he is pursuing his Ph.D. study at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia in electrical engineering.

Abstract: This paper presents a study on the comparison of Health Index (HI) and the Degree of Polymerization (DP) models based on 2-furfuraldehyde (2-FAL) compound to determine the transformer condition. In total, 30 transformers ranging in age from 13 to 25 years were analyzed. First, the Transformer Health Index (THI) was computed based on yearly individual oil condition monitoring data that consisted of oil quality, dissolved gases, and furanic compounds. Next, the DP was computed based on 2-FAL using five different furfural analysis methods for DP models that are tavailable in literature. Next, the DP of each transformer was plotted against its 2-FAL values. Then, the percentage of DP named as Health Index DP (HIDP) for each transformer was established based on the maximum estimated DP of each model. Finally, the comparison between THI and HIDP were performed. It was found that there is an identical trend between THI and HIDP. However, the average error between THI and HIDP for each transformer is ranging from 8.28% to 37.18% and the total average error is 17.97%.

Key words: transformers, health index, 2-furfuraldehyde, furfural analysis, degree of polymerization