Username   Password       Forgot your password?  Forgot your username? 


Time-Oriented Modeling and Analysis for Real-Time System under Variability

Volume 15, Number 3, March 2019, pp. 872-883
DOI: 10.23940/ijpe.19.03.p16.872883

Rongfei Xu

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100083, China

(Submitted on October 16, 2018; Revised on November 17, 2018; Accepted on December 15, 2018)


With the advent of MDA, there is an urge to analyze the time performance in real-time systems under various design decisions at the very early stages of design. With the wide application of customized real-time operating system (RTOS) based on a microkernel, we propose a time-oriented modeling and analysis approach for real-time systems based on RTOS at the early stages of design. According to the commonality and variability in the system, a modeling approach for analyzing the time under variable design decisions is presented. These design decisions include various hardware environment, user-level services adopted in RTOS, and the task settings. In the analysis approach, a timing tree with the operating and timing rules is defined and used based on the time annotations of the basic system call of RTOS and worst-case execution time (WCET) of the functional block in a task to analyze the execution time. The modeling and analysis approach proposed is capable of analyzing new decisions without any changes in the model, which is helpful to find the best design decision to improve the real-time in the system. Finally, a real-life aircraft landing control system is taken as an example to evaluate this approach.


References: 31

        1. D. Hatley and I. Pirbhai, “Strategies for Real-Time System Specification,” Addison-Wesley, 2013
        2. R. Mzid, C. Mraidha, J. P. Babau, and M. Abid, “A MDD Approach for RTOS Integration on Valid Real-Time Design Model,” in Proceedings of 38th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, pp. 9-16, IEEE, 2012
        3. B. Blackham, Y. Shi, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Roychoudhury, and G. Heiser, “Timing Analysis of a Protected Operating System Kernel,” in Proceedings of 32nd Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 339-348, IEEE, 2011
        4. A. G. Kleppe, J. Warmer, and W. Bast, “The Model Driven Architecture: Practice and Promise,” Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003
        5. I. W. Soares, L. T. W. Agner, P. C. Stadzisz, and J. M. Simão, “Modeling of Embedded Software on MDA Platform Models,” Journal of Computer Science & Technology, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 133-139, 2012
        6. J. Schneider, “Why You Can’t Analyze RTOSs Without Considering Applications and Vice Versa,” in Proceedings of 2nd WS Worst-Case Execution-Time Analysis, pp. 1-4, 2002
        7. M. Lv, N. Guan, Y. Zhang, Q. Deng, G. Yu, and J. Zhang, “A Survey of WCET Analysis of Real-Time Operating Systems,” in Proceedings of 2009 International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS09), pp. 65-72, IEEE, 2009
        8. C. Mraidha, S. Tucci-Piergiovanni, and S. Gerard, “Optimum: A MARTE-based Methodology for Schedulability Analysis at Early Design Stages,” ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 1-8, 2011
        9. Y. Harada, K. Abe, M. Yoo, and T. Yokoyama, “Aspect-Oriented Customization of the Scheduling Algorithms and the Resource Access Protocols of a Real-Time Operating System Family,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart City/SocialCom/Sus -tainCom (SmartCity), pp. 87-94, IEEE, 2015
        10. J. Zimmermann, S. Stattelmann, A. Viehl, O. Bringmann, and W. Rosenstiel, “Model-Driven Virtual Prototyping for Real-Time Simulation of Distributed Embedded Systems,” 7th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES12), pp. 201-210, IEEE, 2012
        11. E. D. Jensen, C. D. Locke, and H. Tokuda, “A Time-Driven Scheduling Model for Real-Time Operating Systems,” RTSS, Vol. 85, pp. 112-122, 1985
        12. “UML Profile for MARTE: Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems,” ( Current, accessed September 10, 2018)
        13. “Real-Time Operating System,” ( -time_operating_system, accessed September 10, 2018)
        14. K. Abe, M. Yoo, and T. Yokoyama, “Customization of a Real-Time Operating System Scheduler with Aspect-Oriented Programming,” in Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), Vol. 71, pp. 1390, 2012
        15. G. Macher, M. Atas, E. Armengaud, and C. Kreiner. “A Model-based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems,” SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars-Electronic and Electrical Systems, Vol. 8, No. 2015-01-0183, pp. 270-277, 2015
        16. “Microkernel,” (, accessed September 10 2018)
        17. D. P. B. Renaux, R. E. Goes, and R. R. Linhares, “Performance Characterization of Real-Time Operating Systems for Systems-on-Silicon,” in Proceedings of 12th Brazilian Workshop on Real-Time and Embedded Systems, pp. 63-74, 2010
        18. C. Brink, E. Kamsties, M. Peters, and S. Sachweh, “On Hardware Variability and The Relation to Software Variability,” in Proceedings of 40th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, pp. 352-355, IEEE, 2014
        19. F. Verdier, B. Miramond, M. Maillard, E. Huck, and T. Lefebvre, “Using High-Level RTOS Models for HW/SW Embedded Architecture Exploration: Case Study on Mobile Robotic Vision,” EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, No. 1, pp. 1-17, 2008
        20. Y. Wang, C. F. Ngolah, G. Zeng, P. C. Y. Sheu, C. P. Choy, and Y. Tian, “The Formal Design Model of a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS+): Conceptual and Architectural Frameworks,” International Journal of Software Science and Computational Intelligence (IJSSCI), Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 105-122, 2010
        21. T. Berger, S. She, R. Lotufo, A. Wasowski, and K. Czarnecki. “Variability Modeling in the Systems Software Domain,” Generative Software Development Laboratory, University of Waterloo, Technical Report, 2012
        22. “Separation of Mechanism and Policy,” (, accessed September 10, 2018)
        23. K. J. Åström and B. Bernhardsson, “Comparison of Riemann and Lebesque Sampling for First Order Stochastic Systems,” in Proceedings of 41st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Vol. 2, pp. 2011-2016, IEEE, 2002
        24. P. Tabuada, “Event-Triggered Real-Time Scheduling of Stabilizing Control Tasks,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 52, No. 9, pp. 1680-1685, 2007
        25. T. Sewell, F. Kam, and G. Heiser, “Complete, High-Assurance Determination of Loop Bounds and Infeasible Paths for WCET Analysis,” in Proceedings of 2016 IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), pp. 1-11, IEEE, 2016
        26. “RTEMS C Users Guide,” On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR), 2011
        27. A. A. Lambregts and R. Hansen, “Aircraft Landing Control System,” U.S. Patent No. 4357661, Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office, 1982
        28. G. Klein, K. Elphinstone, G. Heiser, and J. Andronick, “SeL4: Formal Verification of an OS Kernel,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGOPS 22nd Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, pp. 207-220, ACM, 2009
        29. J. A. Stankovic, M. Spuri, K. Ramamritham, and G. C. Buttazzo, “Deadline Scheduling for Real-Time Systems: EDF and Related Algorithms,” Springer Science & Business Media, 2012
        30. R. Lee, K. Abdel-Khalek, S. Abdi, and F. Risacher, “Early System Level Modeling of Real-Time Applications on Embedded Platforms,” in Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), pp. 558-565, IEEE, 2013
        31. N. Guan, C. Gu, M. Stigge, Q. Deng, and W. Yi, “Approximate Response Time Analysis of Real-Time Task Graphs,” in Proceedings of 2014 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 304-313, IEEE, 2014


        Please note : You will need Adobe Acrobat viewer to view the full articles.Get Free Adobe Reader

        This site uses encryption for transmitting your passwords.