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Energy Analysis for a Sustainable Future: Multiscale integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism
Publishers

:

Earthscan/ Routledge, London

Authors

:

Mario Giampietro, Kozo Mayumi, and Alevgȕl Șorman

Title

:

Energy Analysis for a Sustainable Future: Multiscale integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism

Year of Publication

:

2012

Pages

:

339

ISBN

:

9780415539661

Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book consists of the following 12 chapters grouped under two parts followed by Foreword, acknowledgements, list of abbreviations and Introduction:
Introduction

09 Pages

Part 1: Defining the problem


Chapter 1

Energy accounting: sources of ambiguity

14 Pages

Chapter 2

Energy analysis: the troublesome birth of a new domain of knowledge

22 Pages

Chapter 3

The aggregation of energy flows at the national level

13 Pages

Chapter 4

The proper use of semantic and formal categories in energy accounting

31 Pages

Chapter 5

Energy Flows under human control: energy input, power capacity, and human labour

28 Pages

Chapter 6

Cutting through the confusion in net energy analysis

41 Pages

Part 2: Proposing a solution


Chapter 7

In search of a richer, integrated and multiscale accounting protocol

27 Pages

Chapter 8

Concepts, ideas and representations underlying the multiscale integrated accounting of society’s energy
metabolism

20Pages

Chapter 9

Dual accounting of energy flows and characterization of the metabolism pattern across hierarchical levels

24 Pages

Chapter 10

Studying the feasibility and desirability of the metabolism pattern of society from within

23 Pages

Chapter 11

Using the MuSIASEM approach to check the external constraints on metabolic pattern of modern societies

18 Pages

Chapter 12

Using MuSIASEM for studying scenarios based on alternatives to fossil energy

22 Pages

Conclusions: where do we go from here?

06 Pages

Appendix 1: The historical roots of the ambiguity of the quantification of energy

14 Pages

Appendix 2: The tautology used to generate the quantitative assessments in the flow chart illustrated in Figure 4.2

06Pages

References

11 Pages

Index

07 Pages

The subject of energetics or energy economics is study of energy under transformation. Energy flows at all levels and scales, from quantum level to biosphere and cosmos. Energetics is a very broad discipline encompassing thermodynamics, biology, chemistry, biochemistry, ecology etc. Since energy flows under transformation, the principles of energetics follow the four laws of thermodynamics.
The authors of this book have had sound background in energetics. Mario Giampietro’s interest in energetics was kindled by lectures of Prof. Gino Parolini in 1978 and has tried to develop an integrated and holistic approach to energy analysis based on Prof. Parolini’s suggestions at the University of La Sapienza in Rome, whereas Kozo Mayumi’s interest in energetics was generated by Atsushi Tsuchida the founder of Japanese Entropy School.
This book is about energy accounting. Energy can be measured using different units such as joules, kWh, kcal, Btu or quads. The problem starts when we try to account or integrate involving aggregation of different types of energy forms. The authors emphasize that a single method of accounting of energy in terms of joules would be unrealistic since energy has different scales and domains that are nonequivalent due to different forms and scales of energy since data generated within nonequivalent processes cannot be summed up even if expressed in the same unit. The quantitative assessment of aggregation at the national level cannot be useful for decision making or prioritizing the sources particularly when several alternative sources of energy are available. Context is important when equivalence is being considered since a kilogram of apples and a kilogram of oranges in weight are not equivalent in as far as vitamin C or price is concerned. So they cannot be aggregated on the basis of weight. As one can infer from the table of contents the book is organized in two parts. The first part of the book deals with the definition of the problem. And the second part deals with the approach used for the solution of the problem.
The book is quite exhaustive and makes an important contribution to the subject but needs to have some background in energetics to understand and appreciate the contents. The authors themselves admit
that the readers “unfamiliar with field of energetics, even if familiar with sustainability studies … do not
seem particularly impressed by our achievement nor by the chosen subject of investigation”.
 Krishna B. Misra


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Importance Measures in Reliability, Risk, and Optimization Principles and Applications
Publishers

:

John Wiley & Sons Ltd., U.K.

Authors

:

Way Kuo , and Xiaoyan Zhu

Title

:

Importance Measures in Reliability, Risk, and Optimization Principles and Applications

Year of Publication

:

2012

Pages

:

440

ISBN

:

9781119993445

Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book consists of the 5 parts containing 19 chapters followed by Preface, Acknowledgements, Acronyms and Notation
Part One : Introduction and Background

Chapter 1

Introduction to Importance Measures

09 Pages

Chapter 2

Fundamentals of Systems Reliability

29 Pages

Part Two : Principles of Importance Measures

Chapter 3

The Essence of Importance Measures

05 Pages

Chapter 4

Reliability Importance Measures

13 Pages

Chapter 5

Lifetime Importance Measures

17 Pages

Chapter 6

Structure Importance Measures

40 Pages

Chapter 7

Importance Measures of Pairs and Group of Components

13 Pages

Chapter 8

Importance Measures for Consecutive –koutofn Systems

23 Pages

Part Three: Importance Measures for Reliability Design

Chapter 9

Redundancy Allocation

13 Pages

Chapter 10

Upgrading System Performance

34 Pages

Chapter 11

Component Assignment in Coherent Systems

16Pages

Chapter 12

Component Assignment in Consecutivekoutofn and its Variant Systems

24 Pages

Chapter 13

BImportancebased Heuristics for Component Assignment

24 Pages

Part Four: Relations and Generalizations

Chapter 14

Comparisons of Importance Measures

11 Pages

Chapter 15

Generalization of Importance Measures

30 Pages

Part Five: Broad Implications to Risk and Mathematical Programming

Chapter 16

Networks

14 Pages

Chapter 17

Mathematical Programming

15 Pages

Chapter 18

Sensitivity Analysis

33 Pages

Chapter 19

Risk and Safety in Nuclear Power Plants

14 Pages

Afterword


04 Pages

Appendix A1A5: Proofs of Some Theorems stated in the book

06 Pages

Bibliography


15 Pages

Index


06 Pages

This book is actually based on compilation of theoretical research published by the authors on the subject of importance factors. The importance of importance factors in the reliability and safety of systems can hardly be emphasized. This book is a compendium on the subject. However it is observed that there are not many real case studies presented in the book which otherwise would have added the value of the book. For example, the nuclear system safety, where the application of importance measures is an utmost necessity in carrying out level1, level2 and level3 safety analyses of nuclear plants could have been discussed at some adequate length to provide insight into actual applications rather than winding up discussion in just 11 pages excluding three pages of references in the last chapter (chapter 19) of the book. However, the reviewer feels that it is a good compilation and discussion of various importance measures and provides theoretical background and discusses relative advantages of various importance measures that are in vogue for reliability and safety studies, particularly in the category of structural, reliability and lifetime importance measures.
The authors do indicate the utility of various importance measures in the reliability design of systems particularly in redundancy allocation and in improving reliability of various system configurations, flow
network systems including the problem of component assignment in a system, sensitivity analysis and in
optimization problems.
The reviewer finds this book quite useful and recommends to the students and researchers of reliability and risk to have a closer look at it so that further developments can be initiated to develop practical tools
for a realist approach to riskbased reliability design of systems. This book should be a good addition to a
library of books on reliability and risk.
Krishna B. Misra



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Detailed review of:
Network Reliability and Resilience

Publishers

:

Springer, Heidelberg


Authors

:

Ilya Gertsbakh and Yoseph Shpungin


Title

:

Network Reliability and Resilience


Year of Publication

:

2011


Pages

:

75


ISBN

:

9783642223730


Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra


Status

:

Review published in IJPE, Vol. 8, No.3, May 2012, p.299.


The book consists of only 2 chapters followed by Authors' Preface, Notation and Abbreviations:

Table of Contents 
Preface

03 pages

Notation and Abbreviations 
02 Pages

Chapter 1

Theory 
50 Pages

Chapter 2

Applications

21 Pages

References

01 Page

Index

03 Pages


This is not a book of usual size but a booklet of 75 pages and basically complements the authors' earlier book, Models of Network Reliability: Analysis, Combinatorics and Monte Carlo, published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, U.S.A. in 2009, whose review was published in the IJPE in Vol.7, No. 3, May 2011, on page 262. Whereas the authors' earlier had confined itself only to the twostate modeling of a system, the present book extends reliability computation to multistate systems and can consider degraded state of a component of system. The
tool that the authors have made use of handling such systems is multidimensional Dspectrum and marginal Dspectrum. Dspectrum is basically a multidimensional discrete probability distribution. The Dspectrum is combinatorial in nature and depends solely on the system structure. Since combinatorial reliability computation often results in a large number of states and is computationally unwieldy if not impossible. Here, the authors suggest the use of Monte Carlo simulation. Dspectrum approach allows an efficient Monte Carlo procedure by approximating system Dspectrum to compute system reliability and its resilience. Usually it is not easy to compute network component importance, more specifically the Birnbaum's Importance factor which involves computation of a gradient. However a modification of the Dspectrum called BIMspectrum makes its computation as well as the computation of the Joint Reliability Index an easy task. The authors further propose a simple analytic method of calculating the Dspectrum for seriesparallel and hierarchical systems, knowing the Dspectra of their subsystems. As is evident from the table of contents, the book has only two chapters. While the first chapter deals extensively with the theory involved in the proposed approach, the authors have taken pains to illustrate the methodology through several examples, which include predisaster management of a road network and a resilience comparison of regular and scalefree networks subject to random attack on the nodes. Actually, the book uses the probabilistic description of a network in the process of its successive degradation due to removal of its components (links, nodes) as a result of failures, natural disasters or intentional attacks. It is focused on a practical approach to network reliability, based on application of Monte Carlo methodology to numerical evaluation of network most important structural parameters. This allows obtaining a probabilistic description of the network in the process of its degradation, to identify most important components and to develop efficient heuristic algorithms for network optimal design. The approach can be used satisfactorily for small–tomedium size networks.
Krishna B. Misra
Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3, May 2012, p.299.


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Detailed review of:
Riskbased Reliability Analysis and Generic Principles for Risk Reduction

Publishers

:

Elsevier B.V. , The Netherlands


Author

:

Machael Todinov


Title

:

Riskbased Reliability Analysis and Generic Principles for Risk Reduction


Year of Publication

:

2007


Pages

:

373


ISBN

:

9780080447285


Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra


Status

:

Review published in IJPE, Vol. 8, No. 3, May 2012, p. 248.


Table of Contents
Preface

04 Pages

Chapter 1

RiskBased Reliability Analysis: A Powerful Alternative to Traditional Reliability Analysis

06 Pages

Chapter 2

Basic Reliability Concepts and Conventions used for Determining the Loss from Failure

24 Pages

Chapter 3

Methods for Analysis of Complex Reliability Networks

28 Pages

Chapter 4

Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Risk Management

30 Pages

Chapter 5

Potential Loss from Failure for Nonrepairable Components and Systems with Multiple Failure Modes

32 Pages

Chapter 6

Losses from Failures for Repairable Systems with Components Logically Arranged in Series

14 Pages

Chapter 7

Reliability Analysis of Complex Repairable Systems Based on Constructing the Distribution of the Potential Losses

16 Pages

Chapter 8

Reliability Value Analysis for Complex Systems

12 Pages

Chapter 9

Reliability Allocation Based on Minimizing the Total Cost

17 Pages

Chapter 10

Generic Approaches to Reducing the Likelihood of Critical Failures

12 Pages

Chapter 11

Specific Principles for Reducing the Likelihood of Failures

30 Pages

Chapter 12

Reducing the Risk of Failures by Reducing the Negative Impact from the Variability of Design Parameters

16 Pages

Chapter 13

Generic Solutions for Reducing the Likelihood of Overstress and Wearout Failures

25 Pages

Chapter 14

Reducing the Risk of Failure by Removing Latent Faults and Avoiding Common Cause Failures

25 Pages

Chapter 15

Consequence Analysis and Generic Principles for Reducing the Consequences from Failures

24 Pages

Chapter 16

Locally Initiated Failure and Risk Reduction

33 Pages

Appendix A1A8: Monte Carlo Simulation Routines used in the Algorithms for RiskBased Reliability Analysis

05 Pages

References

07 Pages

Index

11 Pages


This book is actually based on an interesting research work carried out by the author from 2004 onwards, resulting in some papers and his companion book on Reliability and Risk Models : Setting Quantitative Reliability
Requirements, published by Wiley in 2005. This is book is different from other books dealing with conventional reliability analysis and design as its premise is based on the cost of failures. This will result in a situation where even identical components may be designed to different reliability levels if their failure results in different losses. The author justifies this as risk –based reliability design and feels that a number of failures resulting in very high consequences can be avoided by following the formulated design principle if the reliability level to which a critical system is built, is derived from the consequences of its failures.
An aggregated risk measure based on cumulative distribution of potential losses is introduced and theoretical framework for risk analysis based on the concept of potential losses is developed. In traditional analysis, losses from failures are calculated by average unavailability or availability. In the author's proposition, two systems with the same unavailability may have very different losses from failure depending upon the time of occurrences of the failures besides the average availability does not reveal the variation of actual availability and thereby the variation of losses. The book also addresses the problem of riskbased reliability allocation in a complex system. In the latter part, the book also provides generic principles and techniques for reducing risk of failure, which are classified in three categories, viz., reducing the likelihood of failure (what the author calls it as preventive), reducing the consequences of failure (protective) and the third category comprises reducing both, i.e., likelihood and consequences of failures. In fact the author claims that such a systematic presentation of risk reducing approaches has been done for the first time through this book. The author also supplements the book by providing a review of classical reliability and risk analysis techniques and models.
The referee finds this book quite interesting and recommends to the students of reliability and researchers to have a closer look at it so that further research can be initiated to develop tools hitherto were not possible and a realist approach to riskbased reliability design of systems is possible. This book should be a good addition to a library of books on reliability and risk.
Krishna B. Misra
Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3, May 2012, p. 248..


