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Detailed review of: 


Stochastic Ageing and Dependence for Reliability


 

 

Publishers

:

Springer Verlag

 

Authors

:

Chin-Diew Lai and Min Xie

 

Title

:

Stochastic Ageing and Dependence for Reliability

 

Year of Publication

:

2006

 

Pages

:

420

 

ISBN

:

0387297421

 

Reviewer

:

Suprasad V. Amari

 

Status

:

Review published in IJPE, Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2007, p. 292.

 
Table of Contents
  1. Introduction (6 pages)
  2. Concepts and Applications of Stochastic Ageing (64 pages)
  3. Bathtub Shaped Failure Rate Life Distributions (37 pages)
  4. Mean Residual Life – Concepts and Applications in Reliability Analysis (30 pages)
  5. Weibull Related Distributions (28 pages)
  6. An Introduction to Discrete Failure Time Models (36 pages)
  7. Tests of Stochastic Ageing (34 pages)
  8. Bivariate and Multivariate Ageing (22 pages)
  9. Concepts and Measures of Dependence in Reliability (48 pages)
  10. Reliability of Systems with Dependent Components (38 pages)
  11. Failure Time Data (18 pages)
 
Plus:
  • References  (44 pages)
  • Index  (10 pages)

This book is an important addition to several well-written books on reliability theory and concepts.

9780387297422
The book fulfills the authors aim in providing a comprehensive treatment of both ageing and dependence concepts, with emphasis on reliability and survival analysis. The book has a forward by Dr. Richard E. Barlow, a pioneer in the field of reliability theory. As mentioned by Barlow, the book covers most of the results in the literature pertaining to ageing classes and bivariate life distributions; as a result, it can be regarded as a compendium of ageing concepts. The book is encyclopedic in scope and will be useful to both practitioners and researchers in reliability engineering as well as other disciplines. The book is written at a relatively advanced level, which means that readers should have some basic knowledge in probability and statistics before reading it. 

Important features of this book are that it contains a comprehensive list of references (44 pages and nearly 800 entries) and provides up-to-date information on what has been written on the subject to date. Many important results of the last three decades are brought together and succinctly summarized. Readers interested in the details, however, can easily refer to the corresponding cited references for detailed proofs.

The book begins with discussion of various concepts of stochastic ageing, starting with the definition of the failure rate function (or hazard function). The remarks on terminology explain the reasons for the continued usage of the term "failure rate" instead of "hazard rate." The book presents detailed descriptions of life distributions belonging to various classes of failure rate functions and mean residual life distributions. Various families of "bathtub-shaped" failure rate distributions are presented in detail. A complete chapter is devoted to the Weibull distribution and its generalizations, which can be flexible in modeling various sources of lifetime data. Discrete failure time distributions and their ageing concepts are also discussed in detail. The book includes a wide range of statistical tests on ageing that helps in determining which ageing class data belongs to, which is an important starting point in analyzing any failure data. The discussion on reliability of systems with dependent components is very important for accurate reliability analysis as component lifetimes are generally dependent in practice. The book also presents 33 data sets of failure times that could be useful for researchers and students in their future study in this field.

Overall, I recommend this book to all serious-minded researchers, practitioners, teachers, and graduate students who would like to have the most up-to-date information available on the subject of stochastic ageing and dependencies in reliability. It also serves as reference book on reliability and survival analysis and is a good addition to one's statistical or reliability library.

Suprasad V. Amari

 

Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2007, p. 292. 

 


 

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Detailed review of: 


Modern Statistical & Mathematical Methods in Reliability


 

Publishers

:

World Scientific, Singapore

 

Authors

:

Alyson Wilson, N. Limnios, Sallie Keller-McNulty & Y. Armijo

 

Title

:

Modern Statistical & Mathematical Methods in Reliability

 

Year of Publication

:

2005

 

Pages

:

428

 

ISBN

:

9812563563

 

Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra

 

Status

:

Review published in IJPE, Vol. 3, No. 2, April. 2007, p. 291.


This book is basically a research monograph prepared from selected reviewed papers originally presented

Modern Statistica and Mathematical Methods in Reliability

at the fourth International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Reliability (MMR 2004) hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LALN) and the National Institute of Statistical Sciences, June 21-25, 2004 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This 28-chapter book presents an array of recent, significant developments taking place in reliability theory and statistical methods and their applications.  Papers report on topics such as reliability modeling, network and system reliability, Bayesian methods, Bayesian Nets, survival analysis, end of life analysis, dynamic phased mission systems, accelerated life testing, sampling methods, warranty models, degradation and maintenance modeling, imperfect repair models, software reliability, flow-graph models and Binary representation for multi-state systems, etc.

This book is valuable to anyone interested in reliability, since it contributes to and guides some very important directions in reliability and statistical methods. For example, Vicki Bier's paper, Game-Theoretic and Reliability Methods in Counter-Terrorism and Security, makes an important contribution to reliability analysis, particularly when the traditional reliability analyses are ineffective for predicting the adequacy of protection of technological systems against intentional attacks.   Her unique solution suggests the use of Game theory and reliability analyses to defend systems against attacks by knowledgeable and adaptable adversaries.  Further the reviewer appreciates highly of the effort of the authors of the chapter on End of Life Analysis in which an attempt is made to discuss the consequences of implementing WEEE directives on reliability of products and systems and on their design. This is a new direction for research in reliability theory and its application.

The chapters include such topics as Competing Risk Modeling in Reliability (T. Bedford); Tests for Some Statistical Hypotheses for Dependent Competing Risks (Isha Dewan and J.V. Deshpande); Regression Models for Reliability Given the Usage Accumulation History (T. Duchesne); Bayesian Methods for Assessing System Reliability: Models and Computation (T. Graves and M. Hamada); Dynamic Modeling in Reliability and Survival Analysis (E. A. Peña & E. Slate); End of Life Analysis (H. Wynn, et al.); Reliability Analysis of a Dynamic Phased Mission System (M. Bouissou, et al.); Sensitivity Analysis of Accelerated Life Tests with Competing Failure Modes (C. Bunea, et al.); Estimating Mean Cumulative Functions from Truncated Automotive Warranty Data (S. Chukova, et al); Repair Efficiency Estimation in ARI1 Imperfect Repair Model ( L. Doyen); Effects of Uncertainties in Components on the Survival of Complex Systems with Given Dependencies (A. Gandy); Reliability Analysis of Renewable Redundant Systems with Unreliable Monitoring and Switching (Y. Genis and I. Ushakov); Flowgraph Models for Complex Multi-state System Reliability (A. Huzurbazar and B. Wlliams); Interpretation of Condition Monitoring Data (A.S.K. Jardine, et al.); Binary Representations of Multi-state Systems (E. Korczak); Distribution Free Continuous Bayesian Belief Functions ( D. Kurowicka & R. Cooke); Statistical Modeling and Inference for Component Failure Times Under Preventive Maintenance and Independent Censoring ( Bo H. Lindqvist & H. Langseth); From Artificial Intelligence to Dependability: Modeling and Analysis with Bayesian Networks (L. Portinale, et al.); etc.

Modern Statistical & Mathematical Methods in Reliability offers extensive coverage and important insights into recent innovations in the field of reliability and related advances in statistical methods.  This reviewer recommends this book as a key tool for researchers, engineers, students, teachers, and practitioners interested in keeping current with the latest developments in reliability engineering.

Krishna B. Misra

 

Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2007 , p. 291. 

 


 

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Detailed review of: 


The Universal Generating Function in Reliability Analysis and Optimization


 

 

Publishers

:

Springer Verlag, London

 

Authors

:

Gregory Levitin

 

Title

:

The Universal Generating Function in Reliability Analysis and Optimization

 

Year of Publication

:

2005

 

Pages

:

442

 

ISBN

:

1852339276

 

Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra

 

Status

:

Review published in IJPE, Vol. 3, No. 1, January, 2007, p. 198.

 
Table of Contents
  • Preface  (4 pages)
  • General Notation and Acronyms  (2 pages)
 
Chapters
  1. Basic Tools and Techniques  (28 pages)
  2. Universal Generating Function in Reliability Analysis of Binary Systems (39 pages)
  3. Introduction to Multi-state Systems (33 pages)
  4. Universal Generating Function in Analysis of Series-Parallel  Multi-state Systems (93 pages)
  5. Universal Generating Function in Optimization of Series-Parallel  Multi-state Systems (73 pages)
  6. Universal Generating Function in Analysis and Optimization of  Special Types of Multi-state Systems (103 pages)
  7. Universal Generating Function in Analysis and Optimization of  Consecutively Connected  Systems and Networks (45 pages)
  8. Universal Generating Function in Analysis and Optimization of Fault-tolerant Software (21 pages
 
Plus:
  • References  (9 pages)
  • Index  (2 pages)

This book is different in many ways. Firstly, it is rather a research monograph than a text book, which

The Universal Generating Function in Reliability Analysis and Optimization

lists a total of 203 references and is mainly based on author's 44 research papers and a book published by him between 1997 and 2005. The research papers published between 1997 and 2002 were mostly in coauthorship of Dr. Anatoly Lisnianski and therefore an earlier book, Multi-state System Reliability Assessment, Optimization and Applications, published by World Scientific in 2003.by the author has Dr. Lisnianski as a coauthor. The present book is an enlarged and extended version of his 2003 book and the author has tried to cover as much ground as was possible in the reliability and performance analysis and optimization of multi-state systems. This is a most comprehensive book ever written on the subject and can also be called as a tribute to Prof. Igor Ushakov, who introduced and indicated the usefulness of Universal Generating Function in the reliability analysis of complex systems. Dr. Levitin carried forward the work and has demonstrated beyond doubt the versatility of Universal Generating Function (UGF) in system reliability analysis and the utility of Genetic Algorithms in optimizing system reliability, particularly in case of systems having multi-state components or components having several modes of failure. 

This is the first book, which presents UGF (except the earlier book by the same author, where UGF was introduced in a chapter) comprehensively. Therefore, it is not without reason that the titles of his book as well as all the 8 chapters of his book except the first chapter on Basic Tools and Techniques and the third chapter on Introduction to Multi-state Systems carry UGF on all of them. Therefore, the objective of the book is to familiarize and popularize the use of UGF in system analysis and Genetic Algorithms in optimization, particularly in case of multi-state systems. Of course there can be better approaches available for the analysis and optimization of binary state systems but for MSS, probably the authors approach may be more acceptable.

Secondly, this book is different in approach as it not only allows usual binary state system analysis but also extends it to systems with components that may have several discrete states depending on the performance level and failure modes. Analysis of such systems is usually tedious and time consuming. Levitin demonstrates in this book that the analysis can be carried out with ease and effectively with the help of UGF. Not only that, the author has been quite successful in demonstrating that a variety of problems with various underlying assumptions can be carried out without much difficulty. For example, the author considers controllable multi-state systems, systems with dependent elements, common cause failures and also discusses various importance analyses in case of series-parallel multi-state systems (MSS) in chapter 4. The author goes further to extend his discrete performance levels approach to continuum–state systems by discretizing the continuum performance distribution. This of course makes one wonder whether fuzzy set approach and other possibilistic approaches would be more appropriate for such systems unless one does not want to leave the probabilistic frame of analysis. 

Other chapters progressively provide the analysis of MSS with varying degree of assumptions and complexities. Any optimization of system performance is done using Genetic Algorithm (GA) which the author considers universal in handling such optimization problems whether they concern structure optimization with or without common cause failures or reliability optimization including optimization of reliability growth testing or even minimization of total maintenance cost in case of imperfect maintenance. Subsequently, the author goes on to deal with the analysis and optimization of several special MSS systems such as bridge system, system with two failure modes , weighted voting system and sliding window system. With all these systems the analysis is done using UGF and the optimization problem is solved using GA. No effort is made at any point to quantitatively assess the efficacy of the approaches used. The reliability and steady state availability are computed using the UGF assuming that all reparable components are repaired independently without specifying any restrictions on the repair facilities available. The last two chapters concern consecutively connected MSS systems, multi-state networks and the optimization is about optimal element allocation with or without common cause failures The last chapter is on  fault tolerant software with various performance models and the optimization determines the optimal version sequencing in programs and optimal structure of fault tolerant systems.

The book is useful to researchers, practitioners and serious minded teachers and students who would like to know and compare new techniques with what the author has demonstrated successfully is possible with UGF and GA, particularly in respect of flexibility and ease of handling large systems, the author's approach offers, in the reliability analysis and optimization of MSS

Krishna B. Misra

 

Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2007, p.198. 

 
 

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Detailed review of: 


The New Management of Engineering


 

 

Publishers

:

Lulu Press

 

Authors

:

Patrick D. T. O' Connor

 

Title

:

The New Management of Engineering

 

Year of Publication

:

2005

 

Pages

:

296

 

ISBN

:

1411621492

 

Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra

 

Status

:

Review published in IJPE, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2007, p. 46.

 
Table of Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. From Science to Engineering
  3. People at Work
  4. Developing Engineers
  5. Organizing Engineering
  6. Managing Engineering Projects
  7. Design
  8. Development Testing
  9. Production
  10. Quality, Reliability and Safety
  11. Selling, Using and Supporting Engineering Products
  12. Engineering in Society
 
Plus:
  • References  and Bibliography

It is evident from the contents that the author who has spent his working life in a variety of engineering roles, covers all



The New Management of Engineering

of the life cycle activities of engineering products. Since management is about maximizing potential, of people, technologies, methods and markets, it cannot be taught effectively in classrooms but must be based to a large extent on experience. The author who also started an international journal on Quality and Reliability published by John Wiley has poured out his personal experience into this book. Japanese management and quality circles have proved that unless people are motivated they can't be expected to perform at their best and successful companies have exploited these ideas to create better products at lower costs. The author rightly says that nonscientific activities such as finance services and transport planning can be learned fairly easily but that engineering requires the application of science and mathematics, and therefore can be effectively learned only by years of specialist study and practice. Engineers are expected to provide imagination, inventiveness and skills to perceive the need and to create a product. Outlining the boundaries of science, the author rightly states that scientific theories are often derived by determinism whereas real engineering problems involve combinations of effects, nonlinearities, discontinuities and uncertainties. This influences design and manufacturing. In addition material properties may vary from one environment to the other. Outlining the principle of engineering management, the author quotes Carl von Clausewitz, "The principles of war are very simple. Wars are lost by those who forget them", and likewise engineering management must follow the route marked out by the book.

Managing people is a very complex and difficult function. There is considerable evidence to show that productivity and inventiveness of engineering teams can be increased by relaxing constraints of organization and procedures. The author dwells at length on Mcgregor's and Drucker's theories of management before outlining Deming's 14 points. He goes on further to discuss how engineers can be developed and how they can be organized even though they may come from different cultural background and training. This is essential since a disorganized group of people will not be able to develop an engineering product particularly in today's competitive environment.  Further the author at length discusses the art of managing projects successfully since it involves people, knowledge, facilities, time and money. He highlights the importance of engineering the important attribute of reliability into a product. In fact, the author touches upon all the life cycle activities of a product that are essential for a manager to know. In particular, the chapter on development testing makes the book unique among engineering management texts in covering this essential activity. Problems of quality, reliability and safety as they are narrated by an engineer with wide experience, make interesting reading. The book is available in paperback and can also be downloaded from the publisher's website (www.lulu.com). The reviewer would like to recommend this book to all engineers, and engineering managers, especially those who are concerned about quality, reliability and safety of products and systems. 

Krishna B. Misra


Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2007, p. 46.

 


 

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Detailed review of: 


Maintenance, Replacement & Reliability: Theory and Applications


 

 

Publishers

:

CRC / Taylor & Francis, U.S.A.

 

Authors

:

Andrew K. S. Jardine, Albert H. C. Tsang

 

Title

:

Maintenance, Replacement & Reliability: Theory and Applications

 

Year of Publication

:

2006

 

Pages

:

322

 

ISBN

:

0849339669

 

Reviewer

:

Krishna B. Misra

Status : Review published in IJPE, Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2007, p. 293.
 
Table of Contents

The table of contents in the book runs into 8 pages, but an abridged version is included here in order to convey the depth and breadth of the subject matter presented in the book:

  1. Introduction (25 pages)
    • From Maintenance Management to Physical Asset Management (PMA)
    • The Challenges of PAM
    • Improving PMA
    • Reliability through the Operator
    • Reliability by Design: Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)
    • Optimizing Maintenance and Replacement Decisions
    • The Quantitative Approach
    • Problems and References
  2. Component Replacement Decisions (71 pages)                                                 
    1. Introduction
    2. Optimal Replacement Times for Equipment whose Operating Cost increases with Use
    3. Stochastic Preventive Replacement
    4. Optimal Preventive Replacement Interval of Items subject to Breakdown
    5. Optimal Preventive Replacement Age of an Item subject to Breakdown
    6. Optimal Preventive Replacement Age of an Item subject to Breakdown, taking into account of the time required to effect
    7. Optimal Preventive Replacement Interval or Age of an Item subject to Breakdown: Minimization of Downtime
    8. Group Replacement: Optimal Interval between Group Replacements of Items subject to Failure: The Lamp Replacement Problem
    9. Further Replacement Models
    10. Spare Parts Provisioning: Preventive Replacement Spares
    11. Spare Parts Provisioning: Insurance Spares
    12. Solving the Constant-Interval and Age-Based Models Graphically: Use of Glasser's Graphs
    13. Solving the Constant-Interval and Age-Based Models Using the OREST Software
    14. Problems and References
  3. Inspection Decisions (36 pages)
    1. Introduction
    2. Optimal Inspection Frequency: Maximization of Profit
    3. Optimal Inspection Frequency: Minimization of Downtime
    4. Optimal Inspection Interval to Maximize the Availability of Equipment Used in Emergency Conditions, such as a Protective Device
    5. Optimizing Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) Decisions
    6. Problems and References
  4. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions (46 pages)
    1. Introduction
    2. Optimal Replacement Interval for Capital Equipment: Minimization of Total Cost
    3. Optimal Replacement Interval for Capital Equipment: Maximization of Discounted Benefits
    4. Optimal Replacement Interval for Capital Equipment Whose Planned Utilization Pattern is Variable: Minimization of Total Cost
    5. Optimal Replacement Policy for Capital Equipment taking into Account Technological Improvement: Finite Planning Horizon
    6. Optimal Replacement Policy for Capital Equipment taking into Account Technological Improvement: Infinite Planning Horizon
    7. Software for Economic Life Optimization
    8. Problems and References
  5. Maintenance Resource Requirements (40 pages)
    • Introduction
    • Queuing Theory Preliminaries
    • Optimal Number of Workshop Machines to Meet a Fluctuating Workload
    • Optimal Mix of Two Classes of Similar Equipment (Such as Medium / Large Lathes) to Meet a Fluctuating Workload
    • Rightsizing of Fleet of Equipment: An Application
    • Optimal Size of a Maintenance Workforce to Meet a Fluctuating Workload, Taking into Account Subcontracting Opportunities
    • The Lease or Buy Decision
    • Problems and References
 
Plus:
  • Appendix  1 Statistics Primer  (14 pages)
  • Appendix  2 Weibull Analysis  (43 pages)
  • Appendix  3 Time Value of Money: Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (10 pages)
  • Appendix  4  List of Applications of Maintenance Decision Optimization Models (3 pages)
  • Appendix  5  Ordinates of the Standard Normal Distribution (1 page)
  • Appendix  6  Areas in the Tail of the Standard Normal Distribution (3 pages)
  • Appendix  7  Values of Gamma Function  (1 page)
  • Appendix  8  Median Ranks Table  (2 pages)
  • Appendix  9  Five Percent Ranks Table  (2 pages)
  • Appendix  10 Ninety Five Percent Ranks Table  (2 pages)
  • Appendix  11 Critical Values for the Kolmogorov Smirnov Statistic (dα)  (2 pages)
  • Appendix  12  Answers to Problems  (5 pages)
  • Index  (8 pages) 

Since 1973, Jardine's textbook, Maintenance, Replacement and Reliability has been very popular with students.

Maintenance Replacement and Reliability
A thoroughly revised and updated version of Jardine's original text is now available with his most recent book, Maintenance, Replacement & Reliability: Theory and ApplicationsCo-authored with Tsang, this book addresses the latest developments in the field, many of which have emerged from research in physical asset management, maintenance, and replacement, as well as important innovations brought about through technology.  For example, the authors present a variety of maintenance optimization software programs.  This software has been developed over time through diverse consultancy projects, as well as through pedagogical use for teaching the subject of maintenance and replacement to students and research scholars worldwide.

Jardine and Tsang's work is a well-planned textbook written for the benefit of graduate students and teachers. In addition to clearly written explanatory material, learners will find valuable end-of-chapter practice problems and answers.  Moreover, the authors have included hints to support readers in reaching the solutions to these problems.  Such features are likely to benefit those interested in using the methodologies offered in this book by giving them real problem-solving skills, thus building their confidence as engineers.

Another extremely valuable bonus to this book are the links within the chapters to considerable supplemental reference material in the twelve appendices (the appendices alone comprise nearly 40% of the text).  As such, the authors have done a great service to their readers by making the book a largely self-contained resource, eliminating the need for multiple additional source documentation.  In addition, links are provided for access to downloadable educational versions of such software packages as OREST, SMS, PERDEC and AGE/CON, Workshop Simulator, Crew Size Optimizer, and WiebullSoft. Also, the instructors who adopt this book may obtain a set of Power Point slides covering the various chapters and appendices, a manual of solutions of the problems in given in the book, and a bank of more than 100 examination questions from Susie Carlisle at susie.carlisle@taylorandfrancis.com.

This reviewer has no hesitation in recommending this excellent book to all students, teachers, researchers, and practitioners who would like to make use of the tools presented therein.  This is especially true for those interested in maintenance and replacement issues, particularly in optimizing preventive replacement intervals, inspection frequencies, condition-based maintenance actions, capital equipment replacement, and maintenance resource requirements.

Krishna B. Misra

 

Review published in the International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2007, p. 293.

 

 


 
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