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Energetic Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application


Publisher

: 

Elsevier, Amsterdam

Title

: 

Energetic Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application

 Editors  :  Vladimir E. Zarko and Alexander A. Gromov

Year of Publication

: 

2016

Pages

: 

374

ISBN-13

: 

978-0-12-802710-3

Reviewer

: 

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book comprises 13 chapters from 50 contributors to this edited book, Preface and a Dedication:

 

  

Chapter 1

Nanoenergetic Materials: A New Era in Combustion and Propulsion

03 Pages

Chapter 2

Fast-Reacting Nanocomposite Energetic Materials: Synthesis and Combustion Characterization

105 Pages

Chapter 3

Nanometals: Synthesis and Application in Energetic Systems

100 Pages

Chapter 4

Mechanisms and Microphysics of Energy release Pathways in Nanoenergetic Materials

64 Pages

Chapter 5

Applications of Nanocatalysts in Solid Rocket Propellants

14 Pages

Chapter 6

Nanocoating for Activation of Energetic Metals

20 Pages

Chapter 7

Nanostructured Energetic Materials and Energetic Chips

30 Pages

Chapter 8

Combustion Behaviour of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

58 Pages

Chapter 9

Catalysis of HMX Decomposition and Combustion: Defect Chemistry Approach

10 Pages

Chapter 10

Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Carbon Nanotubes-Supported Metal or Metal Oxide

03 Pages

Chapter 11

Formation of Nanosized Products in Combustion of Metal Particles

12 Pages

Chapter 12

Encapsulated Nanoscale Particles and Inclusions in Solid Propellant Ingredients

12 Pages

Chapter 13

Pre-burning Characterization of Nanosized Aluminum in Condensed Energetic Systems

12 Pages

Index

07 Pages


 

Nanoenergetic materials characterize the energetic materials or energy systems that contain or consist of nano-components. The most developed nonoenergetic materials Advantage of using nano-energetic materials is their great reactivity and ability for fast chemical transformations.

This is a relatively new area of research and could lead to breakthrough in the development of advanced propellants, microenergetic devices and explosives. An efficient realization of unique properties of energetic materials can be achieved by studying the intrinsic mechanism of reactions. This bottom-up approach in the architecture of matter provides an insight of the mechanism of governing the properties of nanoenergetic materials can help develop new energetic substances with well-tailored chemical and physical properties. Another direction of research is based on nano-oxides, which have found application as catalyst in solid propellants as well as in pyrotechnic compositions. This book summarizes the research since 2005 of the leading research groups of the United States of America, Russia, Germany, Italy, Israel, and China. This book comprises contributions from 50 researchers from these countries and offers the latest developments in the area.

Besides being of academic interest of the graduate students and researchers, in the area of nano materials including nanometals, who are interested in the aspects of characterization, synthesis and applications of these materials. 

This review has been published in Vol. 12, No. 4,  July 2016 issue of the IJPE

 

 

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Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications


Publisher

: 

Elsevier, Amsterdam

Title

: 

Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications

 Author  :  Arnab Chakrabarty, Sam Mannan and  Tahir Cagin

Year of Publication

: 

2016

Pages

: 

429

ISBN

: 

978-0-12-396975-0

Reviewer

: 

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book comprises 11 chapters preceded by a Preface and an Acknowledgement as follows:

 

  

Chapter 1

Introduction

03 Pages

Chapter 2

Process Safety

105 Pages

Chapter 3

Molecular-Level Modelling and Simulation in Process Safety

100 Pages

Chapter 4

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation in Process Safety

64 Pages

Chapter 5

Finite Element Analysis in Process Safety Applications

14 Pages

Chapter 6

Dynamic Simulation, Chaos Theory, and Statistical Analysis in Process Safety

20 Pages

Chapter 7

Equipment Failure

30 Pages

Chapter 8

Inherently Safer Design

58 Pages

Chapter 9

Application of Modeling for Industrial Hygiene and Toxicological Issues

10 Pages

Chapter 10

Conclusion

03 Pages

Chapter 11

Exercises

12 Pages

Index

07 Pages


 

Several accidents such as release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal plant in December 1984 and Macondo 8-2disaster in 2010 certainly emphasize the importance of process safety. But assessing quantitatively process safety in spite of great strides in experimental validation and experience of handling the problem, the state of art of process safety is far from being satisfactory due to several reasons which includes substituting lack of understanding by conservatism in modelling. Multi-scale modeling is a computational technique for solving problems involving multiple scales, such as how a flammable vapour cloud might behave if ignited. This book therefore provides information on the fundamental topics of toxic, fire, and air explosion modeling, as well as modeling jet and pool fires using computational fluid dynamics. It is a valuable resource for readers interested in theoretical simulations and/or computer simulations of hazardous scenarios.

Molecular-level Modeling and simulation as well as computational fluid dynamics simulation constitutes two important chapters of the book. Necessary tools and background material such as finite element analysis, statistical analysis and Bayesian theory is covered in several chapters help understand the state of the art in practices of the process safety modelling and assessment and regulations. Monte Carlo simulation in inherently safe designs constitutes an important chapter of the book.  The book also covers nanomaterial toxicity, QPSR analysis on relation of chemical structure to flash point, molecular structure and burning velocity, first principle studies of reactive chemicals, water and air reactive chemicals, and dust explosions.

The book is written by three experienced researchers and practitioners and brings wealth of information in the area of process safety, quantitative risk assessment. Besides being of academic interest to graduate students and researchers from the area of chemical engineering, the book shall be useful to process safety engineers. Worked out examples, case studies, and a question bank help a student to understand the subject in depth and enhances the utility of the book for a professional in the area. The book provides in depth information for use to a plant safety and reliability engineer. 

This review has been published in Vol. 12, No. 3,  May 2016 issue of the IJPE

 

 

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Inherent Safety at Chemical Sites : Reducing Vulnerability to Accidents and Terrorism through Green Chemistry


Publisher

: 

Elsevier, Amsterdam

Title

: 

Inherent Safety at Chemical Sites : Reducing Vulnerability to Accidents and Terrorism through Green Chemistry

 Author  Paul T. Anastas and  David  G. Hammond

Year of Publication

: 

2016

Pages

: 

124

ISBN

: 

978-0-12-804190-1

Reviewer

: 

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book consists of 4 chapters preceded by Dedication and an Acknowledgement as follows:

 

  

Chapter 1

Introduction ( to Green Chemistry)

09 Pages

Chapter 2

Accident Vulnerability and Terrorist Threats to the Chemical and Related Industries

06 Pages

Chapter 3

The Role of Green Chemistry in Reducing Risk

06 Pages

Chapter 4

Case Studies- Green Chemistry in Practice

96 Pages

Conclusions

01 Pages

References

04 Pages


 

Since 1990, Green Chemistry has gained importance and recognition a reliable and cost-effective approach to reduce the environmental consequence of industrial growth. In order to reduce vulnerability to catastrophic accidents, the chemical industries are being compelled to store and use smaller quantities of hazardous chemicals. It is estimated, in United States alone 15000 chemical plants and manufactures store and use extremely hazardous substances that could affect or kill people in the neighbourhood, if released suddenly 

3.1

from these plants as had happened in Bhopal tragedy in India in 1984.  About 125 of these 15000 plants of the US, put over 1 million people at risk while 700 of them at 100,000 people and 3000 of them put at least 10,000 people at risk. With the increased threat of terrorism across the world, the dangers of this type become even more serious as terrorists could turn hazardous chemical facilities into improvised weapons of mass destruction.. The use of Green Chemistry therefore assumes even more strategy to combat these threats.

The book starts with an introduction to Green Chemistry which is considered as an approach to synthesis, processing and use of hazardous chemicals that inherently reduces the risks to humans and environment over the entire life cycle which includes generation and use. It entails replacing hazardous chemicals with relatively safer alternatives while minimizing their amount needed for reaction combining it with catalysts to increase yield and to reduce the storage, handling and transportation of hazardous material. Green chemistry also aims to produce heavy-risk compounds on–demand or on site in order to minimize the risks associated with their transportation or storage. While conventional approach to safety is to contain an accident and training employees for emergency response, the green chemistry aims to fundamentally change the materials and processes to ensure permanently safe processes and system. A 2006 survey conducted in the US, mentions that at least 284 facilities across 47 states have reduced the risk of a chemical release into neighbourhood by resorting to green chemistry by switching to less hazardous processes or chemicals ensuring that 38 million people no longer live under the threat of an accident. In order to illustrate the use of green chemistry, a major portion of the book (96 pages of a 124 pages book) provides several case studies the use of green chemistry in practice, highlighting the triple advantage of using green chemistry, namely, the environmental protection, economic competitiveness, and accident prevention and national security against a terrorist   attack.

The book therefore provides a good account of the approach of green chemistry for environmental protection, safety and to safeguard a nation against terrorism. Besides being of interests to undergraduates, postgraduate chemical engineering or chemistry students and researchers, the book will help serve as a guide for the design of chemical plants to industrial and systems engineers.

 

This review has been published in Vol. 12, No. 3,  May 2016 issue of the IJPE

 

 

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Design for the Unexpected : From Holonic Manufacturing Systems Towards A Humane Mechatronics Society


Publisher

: 

Elsevier, Amsterdam

Title

: 

Design for the Unexpected : From Holonic Manufacturing Systems Towards A Humane Mechatronics Society

 Author  Paul Valckenaers and Handrik Van Brussel

Year of Publication

: 

2016

Pages

: 

218

ISBN

: 

978-0-12-803662-4

Reviewer

: 

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book consists of 9 chapters preceded by About the Authors, Preface and an Introduction as follows:

 

  

Chapter 1

Setting the Stage

08 Pages

Chapter 2

On the Design of Complex Systems

10 Pages

Chapter 3

Design for the Unexpected

08 Pages

Chapter 4

Laws of the Artificial

14 Pages

Chapter 5

Holonic Manufacturing Systems

36 Pages

Chapter 6

The ARTI Reference Architecture-PROSA Revisited

51 Pages

Chapter 7

Case Studies and Research Projects

49 Pages

Chapter 8

Work by Others

11 Pages

Chapter 9

Summary and Outlook

05 Pages

Appendix I: What are (Software) Agents?

02 Pages

Appendix II: Simulation, Emulation, and Modeling

10 Pages

Appendix III: Design by Abduction No Longer Suffices

02 Pages

Subject Index

08 Pages


 

This book presents a shift in paradigm of manufacturing system from the traditional hierarchical control approach to futuristic 3.1manufacturing systems which are called as Holonic Manufacturing Systems. Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) is claimed by the authors as the futuristic framework for the design of the factories of the future and indicates the application of biologically inspired control paradigm for the control of complex manufacturing systems which may have wider applications in several disciplines. A holon is an autonomous building block of a manufacturing system that can transform, store and/or validate information and physical objects. Holons consist of an information-processing system can be a part of another holon. A holon has the property of autonomy and cooperation whereby it is capable of creating and controlling the execution of its own plans and strategies as well as develops and executes a mutually acceptable plan. Holarchy is a system of holons that can cooperate to achieve a goal or objective. It defines the rules of cooperation and may limit the autonomy of holons. Three basic types of holons are: product holons, resource holons and order holons and the PROSA (product-resource-order-staff architecture) is the reference architecture developed in accordance with the HMS paradigm. The authors indicate that Holonic Manufacturing is also capable of handling unexpected situations. To solve real life problems, agents-human or otherwise may start seeking solutions from existing sub-solutions, technology, and infrastructure. Adding to the existing parts, individual agents and their team is brought together, integrated as far as possible to seek an overall solution. Such emergent solutions involve integration where integrate-ability of building blocks determines eventually the achievable performance. This decides the design principle for the subsystem for emergent solution imposing its own requirements on design activity capable of surviving in an uncertain future environment. The authors attempt to illustrate the idea through examples and case studies from different disciplines. The authors attempt to explain how a multi-agent control framework can be extended to several other areas such as traffic, transport, services, and health care etc. The first author has 40 years of experience and is known for his research in robotics, mechatronics and holonic manufacturing systems. It is an interesting book useful for researchers and professionals alike. Besides being of academic interest to graduate students the book is expected to be of interest to mechanical engineers, manufacturing engineers, system engineers and industrial engineers, production system designers and production planners, including IT professionals.

 

This review has been published in Vol. 12, No. 3,  May 2016 issue of the IJPE

 

 

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The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design- Chemistry, Components, Types and Terminology


Publisher

: 

Elsevier, Amsterdam

Title

: 

The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design- Chemistry, Components, Types and Terminology

 Author  John Warner

Year of Publication

: 

2015

Pages

: 

326

ISBN

: 

978-3-662-47214-9

Reviewer

: 

Krishna B. Misra

Status

:

Review Complete


The book comprises 16 chapters, preceded by Figure Captions, a Preface, Acknowledgements and Acronym List.

 

  

Chapter 1

Introduction

08 Pages

Chapter 2

History of Vehicle Electrification

13 Pages

Chapter 3

Basic Terminology

11 Pages

Chapter 4

Battery Pack Design Criteria and Selection

15 Pages

Chapter 5

Design for Reliability/Design for Service

08 Pages

Chapter 6

Computer-Aided Design and Analysis

05 Pages

Chapter 7

Lithium-Ion and Other Cell Chemistries

25 Pages

Chapter 8

Battery Management System Controls

11 Pages

Chapter 9

System Control Electronics

11 Pages

Chapter 10

Thermal Management

16 Pages

Chapter 11

Mechanical Packing and Material Selection

07 Pages

Chapter 12

Battery Abuse Tolerance

13 Pages

Chapter 13

Industrial Standards and Organizations

16 Pages

Chapter 14

Second Life and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries

08 Pages

Chapter 15

Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

33 Pages

Chapter 16

The Future of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electrification

06 Pages

References

06 Pages

Appendix A: USABC 12-V Stop/Start Battery Pack Goals

01 Page

Appendix B: USABC 48-V Battery Pack Goals

01 Page

Appendix C: USABC HEV Battery Pack Goals

01 Page

Appendix D: USABC PHEV Battery Pack Goals

02 Pages

Appendix E: USABC EV Battery Pack Goals

01 Page

Index

07 Pages


 

 

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are used in many appliances such as smart phones, laptops, tablets, watches, The_Handbook_of_Lithium-Ion_Battery_Pack_Design-_Chemistry_Components_Types_and_Terminology__-_978-3-662-47214-9GPS devices, and many portable devices that we use in our daily life. As a user of some of these appliances, this reviewer has been always interested to know more about these batteries since I have changed many times the batteries used my laptops in last 10 years using under changing environment of use on account of travels. So as a user, to see a book ultimately on these batteries was a welcome event. As the author claims that it is not written with the assumption that a reader is an engineer, the book is written for all who may not have the idea of what these batteries consist of or how they are designed. The book assumes no background knowledge on the part of a reader and that widens its audience for its use. These batteries will also play a key role in automotive application and many other storage power requirements.

The book starts with the history of storage batteries and introduces terminology used in this field and goes on to explain the design of these batteries and compares various technologies available in the market today. The author introduces its various electronic systems and controls such as battery management system, thermal management etc. that a battery needs for its safe operation. The book further looks in detail the kind of applications these batteries can be put to use progressively, particularly in industrial and automotive field. This reviewer was fascinated by the inclusion of a distinct chapter on reliability of these batteries, including a chapter on failure modes of Li-ion batteries and also a chapter on future of these batteries to make discussion of Li-ion batteries complete. From sustainability point of view, a discussion of second life and recycling of these batteries enhances the utility of the book.

 

This review has been published in Vol. 12, No. 1,  January 2016 issue of the IJPE

 

 
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